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2020年高考英语阅读理解备考技巧

时间:2020-04-17 21:39来源: 作者: 点击:
2020高考即将开战,你准备好了吗?高考网朽为各位考生整理了一些高考复习方法,供大家参考阅读! 专题1 阅读理解专题之----主旨大意题 【设问形式】 1.主旨大意题之标题归纳题常见设问形式: 1)What may/can be th

  2020高考即将开战,你准备好了吗?高考网小编为各位考生整理了一些高考复习方法,供大家参考阅读!

  专题1  阅读理解专题之----主旨大意题

  【设问形式】

  1.主旨大意题之标题归纳题常见设问形式:

  1)What may/can be the best title for the text?

  2)The best title for the text would be______.

  3)Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

  4)What might be the most suitable title for the text?

  ....

  2.主旨大意题之主题归纳题常见的设问形式:

  1)The main idea of the passage is…

  2)The passage is mainly about…

  3)Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?

  4)What is the passage mainly about?

  ......

  【考查方式】

  高考阅读理解主旨大意题的考查旨在考查学生对一篇文章或一个段落的深层次理解和把握其主旨大意的能力。一般针对某一语段或某一语篇的主题、标题设题。这类题目一般考查:概括总结文章的主题、文章标题、段落大意等。它要求考生在理解全文的基础上能较好地运用概括、判断、归纳、推理等逻辑思维方法,对文章进行高度概括和总结,要求学生通过快速阅读获取语篇中心思想的能力,辨别筛选信息的能力。

  1. 主旨大意题之标题归纳题解题思路:

  在阅读理解中,通常利用找中心句来确定文章标题。首先通读文章,找到文章的中心句,根据中心句的关键词来确定最佳标题。同时,在选标题的时候还要注意以下几个问题:

  1)首先要在对原文的理解基础上仔细考虑所选标题是否符合文章的中心思想,同时关注标题对文章的内容的覆盖性如何,避免题目范围过大或过小。

  2)确定文章标题时要注意容易犯的几个错误:①涵盖内容片面,以偏概全 ②标题过于笼统,过于概括。

  3)把文章内容扩大了范围而不能很好地对应文章的中心思想。③标题集中在一些文章的事实或细节而没有对文章的中心思想有一个提升和概括。④选标题时要站在作者和原文的角度理解上,不要自己主观臆断。

  2.主旨大意题之主题归纳题解题思路:

  归纳总结主题包括对整篇文章和对段落的大意总结。对整篇文章的大意总结一是需要利用文章的主题段来把握文章的中心思想。主题段通常出现在文章开头和结尾。主要信息来把握文章脉络,再进行综合归纳,概括出文章的主题。

  对段落大意的总结和概括主要通过寻找主题句的方法来完成。主题句的特点是由于文章的结构不同,主题句出现的位置通常也不同。①主题句在开头:先提出观点,再举例论证或细节解释观点。②主题句在末尾:先表述细节或举例,再归纳结论或结果。③主题句在中间:开头先介绍背景或细节,中间综合或概括出主题,后面再用具体的事实进一步说明或发展前面的主题。④首尾呼应:开头点出主题,中间加以解释,末尾再次强调主题或对前面的事实做出进一步的概括,虽然前后主题中心思想一致,但表述不尽相同。⑤无主题句:注意反复出现的关键词,再进行归纳总结。

  实战演练

  【例题】

  1. 主旨大意题之标题归纳题:2017 全国卷1 C

  Some of the world’s most famous musicians recently gathered in Paris and New Orleans to celebrate the first annual International Jazz Day. UNESCO( United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) recently set April30 as a day to raise awareness of jazz music, its significance, and its potential as a unifying(联合) voice across cultures.

  Despite the celebrations, though, in the U.S. the jazz audience continues to shrink and grow older, and the music has failed to connect with younger generations.

  It’s Jason Moran’s job to help change that. As the Kennedy Center’s artistic adviser for jazz, Moran hopes to widen the audience for jazz, make the music more accessible, and preserve its history and culture.

  “Jazz seems like it’s not really a part of the American appetite,”Moran tells National Public Radio’s reporter Neal Conan. “What I’m hoping to accomplish is that my generation and younger start to reconsider and understand that jazz is not black and write anymore. It’s actually color, and it’s actually digital.”

  Moran says one of the problems with jazz today is that the entertainment aspect of the music has been lost. “The music can’t be presented today the way it was in 1908 or 1958. It has to continue to move, because the way the world works is not the same,”says Moran.

  Last year, Moran worked on a project that arranged Fats Waller’s music for a dance party, “Just to kind of put it back in the mind that Waller is dance music as much as it is concert music,”says Moran. “For me, it’s the recontextualization. In music, where does the emotion(情感) lie? Are we, as abstract as a Charlie Parker record gets us into a dialogue about our emotions and our thoughts? Sometimes we lose sight that the music has a wider context,”says Moran, “So I want to continue those dialogue. Those are the things I want to foster.”

  31.Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

  A.Exploring the Future of jazz.

  B.The Rise and Fall of jazz.

  C.The Story of a jazz Musician.

  D.Celebrating the Jazz Day.

  解析:文章首段点出:UNESCO( United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) recently set April30 as a day to raise awareness of jazz music, its significance, and its potential as a unifying(联合) voice across cultures.联合国教科文组织为了保护爵士乐,设立国际爵士乐日。及结合全文,尤其第三至六段提及Jason Moran对爵士乐的看法及希望,可以得出最佳的标题是A---“探索爵士乐的未来”更符合文章的中心思想。

  2. 主旨大意题之主题归纳题:2018 全国卷1  C

  Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the world was sill populated by hunter-gatherers , small tightly knit (联系)groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other. Some language experts believe that 10000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 1200 languages between them.

  Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centuries, trade, industrialization, the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalization and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.

  At present, the world has about 6800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages, often spoken by many people, while hot, wet zones have lots,often spoken by small numbers. Europe has only around 200 languages; the Americas about 1000; Africa 2400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3200, of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number (中位数) of speakers is a mere 6000, which means that half the world's languages are spoken by fewer people than that.

  Already well over 400 of the total of 6,800 languages are close to extinction (消亡),with only a few elderly speakers left. Pick, at random, Busum in Cameroon(eight remaining Speaker), Chiapaneco in Mexico (150), Lipan Apache in the United States (two or three) or Wadjigu in Australia (one, with a question-mark) none of these seems to have much chance of survival.

  31. What is the main idea of the text?

  A.New languages will be created.

  B.People’s lifestyles are reflected in fewer languages.

  C.Human development results in fewer languages.

  D. Geography determines language evolution.

  解析:文章的首段点出文章的主题:Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going.增加的语言少,消失的语言多,再结合文章按照时间顺序讲述了人类发展的进程和语言的消失。所以我们可以得出C答案。

  【举一反三】

  A

  At the age of seven, while his friends were spending their allowances on candy and toys, Jose Adolfo Quisocola, from Peru, came up with the creative idea of an eco-bank, which allows kids of all ages to become economically independent and financially wise while also helping the environment.

  Established in 2012, The Bartselana Student Bank is the world’s first cooperative bank for kids. Whoever wants to join has to bring in at least 5 kilograms(11 pounds) of solid waste(paper or plastic) and establish a savings goal. Once accepted, all bank “partners” are required to deposit at least one additional kilogram(2.2 pounds) of recyclables on a monthly basis and obey other requirements, such as attending financial education and environmental management workshops. The waste accumulated is sold to local recycling companies, who, thanks to some clever negotiation by Jose, pay a higher-than-market rate for everything brought in by Bartselana Student Bank members. The funds received are placed in the individual’s account where they collect until his/her savings goal is reached. The account holder can then withdraw his/her money, or choose to leave it and continue to grow for a bigger target.

  “At the beginning, my teachers thought I was crazy or that a child could not undertake this type of project, ” Jose recalls. “They did not understand that we are not the future of the country but its present. Luckily, I had the support of the school principal and an assistant in my classroom.”

  The youngster’s persistence paid off. Today, the eco-bank, which now has the support of several local institutions, has ten educational centers and begins accepting applications from kids all across Peru. On November 20, 2018, the young boy was awarded the famous Children’s Climate Prize (CCP). “Jose’s eco-bank is a brilliant way of linking economy and climate impact, both in thought and practice. The potential impact is amazing,” a judge said.

  Hopefully, Jose’s success will inspire more kids and adults to come up with new ideas that create value while helping the environment. As the boy says,” Together we can change the world…we just need an opportunity…”

  1. What can be a suitable title for the passage?

  A. An Amazing Boy,Jose

  B. Recycling does Count Much

  C. An Opportunity to Change the World

  D. An Eco-bank, Economical and Ecological

  B

  Solar energy systems/power plants do not produce air pollution, water pollution, or greenhouse gases. Using solar energy can have a positive, indirect effect on the environment, when solar energy replaces or reduces the use of other energy sources that have larger effects on the environment.

  However, some poisonous materials and chemicals are used to make the photovoltaic (光电池的) cells that convert sunlight into electricity. Some solar thermal (保热的) systems use potentially hazardous liquids to transfer heat. Leaks of these materials could be harmful to the environment. U. S. environmental laws regulate the use and settlement of these types of materials.

  As with any type of power plant, large solar power plants can affect the environment near their locations. The placement of the power plant may have long-term effects on the habitats of native plants and animals. Some solar power plant-s may require water for cleaning solar collectors and concentrators or for cooling turbine generators. Using large volumes of ground water or surface water in some dry locations may affect the ecosystems that depend on these water resources. In addition, the beam of concentrated sunlight a solar power tower creates can kill birds and insects that fly into the beam.

  The amount of solar energy that the earth receives each day is many times greater than the total amount of all energy that people consume each day. However, on the surface of the earth, solar energy is a variable and irregular energy source. The amount of sunlight and the intensity of sunlight varies by time of day and location. Weather and climate conditions affect the availability of sunlight daily and on a seasonal basis. The type and size of a solar energy collection and conversion system determines how much of the available solar energy we can convert into useful energy.

  2. What does the last paragraph mainly tell us?

  A. Different areas receive different amount of solar energy.

  B. How to convert solar energy into useful energy.

  C. The relationship between solar energy collection and the sunlight.

  D. Some factors that influence the amount of solar energy collection.

  3. What does the author think of the solar energy systems?

  A. They are totally environment-friendly.

  B. They have both advantages and disadvantages. C. They should be forbidden in the future.

  D. They should be encouraged in quantities.

  解析:

  1. 标题判断题。通读全文可知,本文主要介绍了秘鲁一位年轻人Jose Adolfo Quisocola创立的生态银行,它让各个年龄段的孩子在经济上独立,经济上明智,同时也帮助环境。因此D项“生态银行,经济又环保”适合作本文最佳标题。故D选项正确。

  2. 段落大意题。第三段主要是关于影响太阳能的因素,阳光的数量和强度,天气和气候条件,太阳能转换系统等都会影响太阳能的使用。故选D。

  3. 推测判断题。作者在文中提到了太阳能对环境保护的好处,同时也提出太阳能的一些劣势,比如会破坏生态平衡,不稳定。由此可以看出作者认为太阳能既有好处,也有不好的地方,选B。

 

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